Acne is a common disease of puberty when sebaceous (oil) glands become active. It most commonly occurs over face, shoulder, back and chest. It is characterized by whiteheads, blackheads, pustule, comedone and cysts. Beside medicines, various treatment options are available such as chemical peeling, LASER therapy, microneedling, microdermabrasion, subcision.
Fungal infection can affect different part of skin, hair and nail. Mostly ,it presents as red color ring shaped skin rash with itching over groin, thigh, buttocks and abdomen but it can affect any part of skin .When it affect hair it can lead to hair loss and in nail infection, it can cause nail plate damage. A person with fungal infection should take care of personal hygiene to stop progression of disease and to prevent spread of disease to others also. In India, fungal infection has become very serious as it is not responding to anti fungal drugs properly. This situation has arrived because of steroid abuse and incomplete antifungal drug course. These person need to visit Dermatologist timely for proper treatment.
Common symptoms of skin allergy are dryness, redness, itching, fluid filled lesions discharging clear or yellowish fluid, sometimes bleeding, fissuring also. A person can get allergy from dust, chemicals, soap, detergent, food items, pollen grains, infections, sunlight, pollutants and drugs. If causative factors are not obvious then allergy test can help to diagnose the possible allergens in a particular case. Few skin allergies are related to genetics also and can present at any age. Patient suffering from skin allergy should protect themselves from possible allergen and need proper follow up to desensitize the body against allergens.
It is a genetically programmed chronic inflammatory skin condition which is characterized by red patches, scaling, itching & sometime bleeding also. In psoriasis skin cell multiply up to 10 times faster. Although psoriatic skin rash tend to occur on knee, elbow, scalp, nail, palm and sole but they can involve whole body. There are several trigger factors which can aggravate psoriasis like infection, trauma, stress, pregnancy and certain drugs. In 15-25% cases it is associated with inflammation of joints, called psoriatic arthritis.
Keloid is a type of overgrown scar that occurs after any trauma to skin. Keloids grow beyond the margin of wound. They are mostly brown, red or pink in color and can be associated with itching, pain and pus discharge. They are prone to develop on the areas with high tension such as chest, shoulder, earlobes. They respond very well to intralesional injections.
It is very common scalp disorder mostly affects during winters. When it presents with severe form, It is called as ‘Seborrheic dermatitis’. It can affect face, ear, and trunk. Dandruff/seborrhiec Dermatitis is caused by fungus. It can be easily treated by antifungal and anti-inflammatory drugs.
Hair loss problem is a major issue in young age group and middle aged persons. Both male and female are affected by this problem at any time in their life span. Hair loss is associated by genetics, hormonal imbalance, and nutritional deficiency. Currently, different treatment modalities are available for hair loss such as platelet rich plasma, stem cell therapy, micro needling, and hair transplant.
There are various conditions can lead to nail changes, like fungal infection, systemic illness, trauma, systemic infection, nutritional deficiency. In such conditions nail plate becomes dystrophic, normal color is changed and sometimes associated with pain and pus discharge.
Sexually transmitted diseases (S.T.D.)
These are also termed as venereal diseases. These infections are transmitted with sexual contact and are caused by different infective agents like bacteria virus,parasite etc.
Syphilis, genital herpes, HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus),gonorrhea, genital warts, pthirus pubis, genital molluscum contagiosum, Trichomoniasis, Bacterial vaginosis are various infections categorized under Sexually transmitted infection.
Skin pigmentation / Melasma / Blemishes
Skin pigmentation can be a sign of photo damage, ageing process, Iron or other nutritional deficiency, genetic etiology or as a sign of systemic disease. To prevent pigmentation, one should use sunscreen on regular basis. Other than drugs, various cosmetic therapies like chemical peels, LASER are good alternatives for treatment of pigmentaory disorders.
It is also called white patch or Leucoderma. In Indian Society, still there is a misconception that there is no cure for white patches, but fact is that if treatment is started during early stage then it can be completely cured. Due to the various causes such as genetic, vitamin deficiency, oxidative stress, neurons disturbance etc, the skin becomes deficient in a substance which is called Melanin that lead to white color skin. Currently, there are various options for its treatment. In addition to conventional medicinal treatment, different advanced technologies and treatment method such as phototherapy, photochemotherapy, excimer laser, target phototherapy etc are available in India.
Urticaria is a kind of skin allergy in which hives (wheals) are formed over skin, sometimes nausea , vomiting, diarrhea, cramps, fall in B.P. ,rhinitis also. Urticaria can be associated with swelling of eyelids, lips, genitalia, this condition is called angioedema. Urticaria is a severely itchy condition that is commonly caused by exposure to an allergen such as food, medication, insect bite, chemical, heat.
Dark circles (Periorbital hypermelanosis)
Periorbital hyperpigmentation/ hypermelanosis is characterized by light to dark brown color and blackish color pigmentation around eyes. It is more common in 16-25 year age group and more in female as compare to male. Genetic, atopic allergy, contact allergy, skin laxity, ageing, lack of sleep, stress are important factors associated with dark circles. Besides drugs, chemical peels, surgery and LASER are therapeutic option.
A mole is a pigmented skin lesion which can present at any site over skin and at any age. It is also called benign melanocytic naevi which occurs due to proliferation of melanocytes (pigment producing cells).The size and number of mole can increase with time. It is removed by surgical excision, LASER, Radio frequency ablation and electrocautery. Rarely, mole can be converted into malignant melanoma (skin cancer).
Warts are benign tumor (growth)of skin and mucosa which are caused by human papilloma virus(HPV).Wart can occur anywhere on skin. Some skin lesions of human papilloma virus can be pre-cancerous. Warts have tendency for recurrence even after complete removal. They are treated with chemical cautery, electrocautery, cryotherapy, radiofrequency ablation and LASER also.
Scar is the final outcome of a healing process following an injury to skin. Scar is composed of fibrous tissue. Chicken pox, acne leads to deep atrophic scar. Scar can be normal, hypertrophic scar or atrophic scar. Scar treatment is done with LASER, microneedling, microdermabrasion, Platelet rich plasma therapy and chemical peeling.